Modes of Voting in Election
Since this is the month of election in Pakistan, we can get a piece of information regarding different modes of voting.
Public and Secret Voting:
Secret voting is practiced by a voter in a polling booth without letting others know whom he is casting the vote. Contrarily, public voting does not count in any kind of secrecy. Mill believes that voting should be done in the eye of public criticism; it's a public duty to be expressed publicly. Proponents of secret ballot consider public voting vulnerable to many abuses. It brings intimidation for voter from stake holders in election.
Plural or Differential Voting:
Universal suffrage is criticised for not differentiating between wisdom and ignorance, education and illiteracy, property and poverty. To remedy these defects, some states practice plural voting by giving some persons more than one vote based on their extra qualification in terms of knowledge, education, experience, property etc.
It's a particular form of plural voting in who vote of an individual is weighed on the account of certain qualification I.e. education or property. For instance, in Belgian it was practiced before 1921; lawyers were given two votes. This system overemphasis on the importance of particular individuals thus changing the centre of polling from masses to certain communities. It has merit of weighing the importance of a learned individual. But at the same time, it casts discrimination.
It is when State renders it compulsory for all to vote thus enhancing the turnout. Some penal sanction is often imposed behind it to make the idea effective. However, it is criticised as voting can't be based on compulsion.