Iqbal, an intellectual with a vision; is believed to have strongly advocated the ideas of Muslim Nationalism and Separation; actually mere pointed out the question of that day which was Hind-Muslim Conflict in his famous presidential address at Illahabad on 30th December, 1930. He said, “The various caste units and religious units in India have shown no inclination to lose their individualities in a large whole. Each group is intensely jealous (guarding) of its separate existence.”
He added, “I would like to see Sindh, Punjab, NWFP and Bloachistan amalgamated into a single state. Self-Government within the British Empire or without the formation of a consolidated Northern Western Indian Muslim States appears to me to be the final destination of Muslims at least of the Northern Western India.”
In this historical speech he boded the need of future, but the use of words ‘With or Without’ explicitly reveal that he did not laid stress on the separate Muslim state. This vision of Iqbal remained intact till 1934 but later the ground realities molded his view for the idea of a separate homeland on the basis of ‘Two-Nation Theory’.
The various extractions from the letters corresponded between Iqbal and Jinnah from May 1936 to November 1937, prove that Iqbal was now certain and unambiguous in his demand for a separate Muslim country;
“The enforcement of Shariat of Islam is impossible in this country without a free Muslim state or states.”
In another letter sent to Jinnah on June 21, 1937 he wrote;
“The only way to a peaceful India is the redistribution of country on the lines of racial, religious and linguistic affinities.”
Thus, it goes clear that, Iqbal’s speech at Illahabad might have been vague in terms of ‘Demand for Separate Homeland’ for Muslims but his letters to Jinnah speak loudly of his desire to see Muslims in a land of their own.