Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is a Eurasian political, economic and military organization. It was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by Russia, China, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Before the inclusion of Uzbekistan, it is called Shanghai Five founded in 1996. In July 2015 in Ufa, Russia, the SCO decide to admit the Pakistan and India as full members. Both Countries signed the memorandum of obligations in June 2016 thereby starting formal process of joining the SCO as full members.In 17th summit of SCO which was held on 9 June 2017 in Astana, Kazakhstan where both India and Pakistan become full member of SCO. Both countries had to sign 38 agreement to become full member of SCO. Except India every state appreciates the One Belt One Road (OBOR) of China's Initiative and which was also endorsed in the Astana Declaration. The SCO main functions are in security, economic, military and cultural cooperation.it work for security cooperation to fight against extremism, terrorism, and separatism. For this purpose, RAT (Regional anti-terrorism structure) was established to fight cross border crimes. SCO increased military cooperation, intelligence sharing and counter-terrorism. A number of SCO joint military exercised were held. It covers oil and gas sector, the exploration of hydrocarbons reserves and joint used of water resources. The creation of inter-bank SCO council was agreed upon in order to fund future joint projects. The cultural ministers meet to promote culture.
Russia and Kazakhstan are rich in energy resources like hydrocarbons and Uranium. Pakistan can get this energy from these countries on behalf of SCO. SCO with Pakistan can play important role in stabilizing Afghanistan and also help to fight against terrorism, reduce the menace of drug trafficking and ensure peace in Afghanistan.
Pakistan can promote economic integration with central energy rich republics. With CPEC (China Pakistan Economic corridor) Pakistan connect south Asia to CARs (Central Asian republics) and can boost up its trade with India and Afghanistan also. Pakistan has long cultural, historical and religious with CARs but lack in economics relations.
CPEC opens up trade, energy and transit route between Pakistan and Russia that pass through Central Asian regions.
Iran an observer to SCO and want to get full membership.so SCO can be a platform for Pakistan to link CPEC route and to discuss trade through Gwadar port and connect with Chabahar and bandar Abbas port and link with Russian proposed North-South Transport Corridor.
SCO is a platform for both India and Pakistan to discuss bilateral issues, border management and Kashmir issue. With veto powers China and Russia taking the lead, the SCO can prove guarantor for TAPI(Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India) and IPI(Iran-Pakistan-India) pipeline that are held on US concerns.
The presence of Pakistan and India in the SOC provide its members the much desired Arabian sea and Indian ocean. PM Nawaz Sharif. Addressing in the summit ,said, "the SCO goals resonate with Pakistan’s national ethos and the SCO charter with our own quest for peaceful neighborhood"
United Nations (UN) Secretary General Antonio Guterres congratulated Pakistan for attaining a membership in the SCO.
SCO is a platform through Pakistan can solved bilateral issued with India and boost up its trade with CARs(Central Asian republics) and buy energy from these countries.with the help of China and Russia, Pakistan can wipe out terrorism and resolve Afghanistan issues.
The Astana summit of SCO,June 9,2017 take concrete steps to further improve SCO's functioning develop cooperation in all priority areas in security ,counter-terrorism, the economy and humanitarian affairs.
It is an excellent opportunity for Pakistan to exploit its scarifies against global terrorism.Since China and Russia have soft corner for Pakistan, therefore, Pakistan stands at a higher pedestal compare to India.